The type of entry component you choose will determine which keyboard shows on phone devices (IOS is a little odd with number and phone pads) and at least with the number entry, you should not be able to type non numeric characters.
The new Min and Max values on Numeric Entry components should prevent negative numbers.
I’m not aware of any way to restrict Date entry to only future dates, but depending on you situation, you can show or hide different components or buttons based on the date entered. You could also build a list of dates in your sheet and display them as a choice component.
There is no Time Only entry. Only Date and Date/Time, although you can set it to display only time after it’s entered.